Performance


Acute Toxicity


  • Independent Testing – Envirolyte systems and generated solutions (anolyte and catolyte) have been through an extensive series of independent tests and on-site trials, including hospitals, breweries, water systems and agricultural environments.
  • Safer World – Being environmentally friendly, completely safe, non-toxic and non-irritant, Anolyte is the solution of choice where traditional chemicals fail to produce the desired results, or for other reasons cannot be used.
  • Better Alternative – The conclusions prove that Anolyte being a low-cost and powerful disinfectant is set to become the preferred solution for many sterilisation, disinfecting and water purification procedures.

Undertaken by Institute of Chemistry of Tallinn Technical University, Estonia.
Daphnia Magna 24 hours acute toxicity tests were carried out according to Finnish standard SFS 5062.

The dilutions used were:

  • Anolyte medium : 1:100, 1:500 and 1:1000
  • Anolyte strong: 1:50, 1:200 and 1:500

The acute toxicity of Anolyte

Anolyte type Dilution EC50; % (confidence limit) EC50; % for initial anolyte
Anolyte medium 1:100 25 (22.5-28) 0.25
1:500 Not toxic
1:1000 Not toxic
Anolyte strong 1:50 13 (11-16) 0.26-0.28
1:200 56 (52-59)
1:500 Not toxic

The toxicity test demonstrated that there were no acute effects for the anolyte diluted 1:500 or more. No significant differences in the toxicity of two anolytes, (strong and medium) were observed.


Chronic Toxicity


  • Independent Testing – Envirolyte systems and generated solutions (anolyte and catolyte) have been put through an extensive series of independent tests and on-site trials, including hospitals, breweries, water systems and agricultural environments.
  • Safer World – Being environmentally friendly, completely safe, non-toxic and non-irritant Anolyte is welcome where traditional chemicals fail to produce the desired results or can’t be applied at all.
  • Better Alternative – The conclusions prove that Anolyte being a low-cost and powerful disinfectant is set to become the preferred solution for many sterilisation, disinfecting and water purification procedures.

By products testing


  • Independent Testing – Envirolyte systems and generated solutions (anolyte and catolyte) have been through an extensive series of independent tests and on-site trials, including hospitals, breweries, water systems and agricultural environments.
  • Safer World – Being environmentally friendly, completely safe, non-toxic and non-irritant, Anolyte is the solution of choice where traditional chemicals fail to produce the desired results, or for other reasons cannot be used.
  • Better Alternative – The conclusions prov,e that Anolyte being a low-cost and powerful disinfectant is set to become the preferred solution for many sterilisation, disinfecting and water purification procedures.

Undertaken by Institute of Chemistry of Tallinn Technical University, Estonia.
The aim of this study was to check the presence of toxic disinfecting by-products, chlorite (ClO2) and chlorate (ClO3) in the anolyte.
Anolyte was produced according to the instructions given by representatives of Envirolyte Industries International Ltd. Two different regimes were tested and according to these regimes anolyte is called Anolyte Medium (pH=2-3; ORP і 1100mV; Cac± 300mg/l) and Anolyte Strong (pH=2-3;ORP і 1100mV; Cac± 500mg/l). The anolyte for examination was produced immediately before test.
Ion chromatography was used for determination of chlorates and chlorites. The experiments were carried out utilising Ion Chromatograph CVET-3007 with the analytical column 6×600 mm filled with sorbent HIKS-1. 2.4 mM Na2-CO3 aqueous solution was used for dilution. Flow rate was 4.5 ml/min and the pressure 40-50 atm. The solutions of NaClO3 with the concentration of ClO3 -ion of 29.15 and 7.29 mg/l were used as standards.
The preliminary runs demonstrated that under conditions mentioned above ClO3 – ion could be separated successfully from chloride (Cl-) and determined at the level down to 0.5 mg/l. Chlorates were determined directly in the diluted anolyte, the chlorites were detected in diluted anolyte after the heating at 100o C for 5 minutes to convert chlorites to chlorates.
Anolyte Medium was diluted 1:200, 1:100 and 1:20. No peak responsible for the presence of any chlorate was observed in dilutions. The tests with heated samples diluted the same way showed the presence of chlorate neither (see chromatograms 1-3) Anolyte Strong was diluted 1:200, 1:100 and 1:20. No peak responsible for the presence of chlorate was observed in any dilutions.

The tests with heated samples diluted the same way showed the presence of chlorate nether (see chromatograms 4-6).
Undertaken by Institute of Chemistry of Tallinn Technical University, Estonia.

Protocol of the test

  • Daphnia magna was used for 21 day full life-cycle testing measuring two endpoints, mortality and reproduction.
  • Daphnia – clone used was of Finnish origin (EF) from the North Savo Regional Environmental Centre in Kuopio, Finland.
  • Five days old neonates were used to begin the 21-day test …….. (Full report is available upon request)

Results of the experiments

The concentrations used for the chronic test were ‹ MIC for D. magna. The maximum mortality observed was 6,7% (that means that one animal of 15 died during the 21 days test in the test vessel). No mortalities and no immobility were observed in any other tests. So it can be concluded that there were no significant differences in D. magna 21-day mortality between the tested water and control. Calculations made for the reproduction test included only survivors.

Conclusion No significant differences were found in the reproduction of Daphnia magna in all tested media. The mortality of Daphnia’s in the tests was less than 10% for sample (only one Daphnia died during the experiments). There were no differences observed in the size and weight at the endpoint of experiments between Daphnia magna grown in the tested samples and the control.

The results of the current study showed clearly that for both anolyte medium and anolyte strong, no chronic effects were observed.


Product comparison


Disinfectant Description Advantages Limitation
Chlorine Used in a gaseous state, requires strictest safety measures
  • Efficient oxidant and disinfectant
  • Efficiently eliminates tastes and odours
  • Featured with aftereffect
  • Capable of controlling the growth of algae, biological slimes and microorganisms
  • Decomposes organic contaminants (phenols…)
  • Iron and magnesium oxidant. Decomposes hydrogen sulphide, cyanides, ammonium and other nitrogen compounds
  • Strict requirements for transportation and storage
  • Potential danger for health in case of a leak. Formation of disinfection byproducts, such as chloroform. The MAC in water will be increased in the near future from 60 mkg/l up to 60 mg/l because there was no proof of direct action of the chloroform on DNA.

Chlorine – containing substances

Hypochlorite Used in liquid and granulated forms (trade concentration – 10-20%), can be obtained on site, electrochemically
  • Effective against most of pathogen microorganisms
  • Relatively safe during storage and use
  • When on-site generated, does not require transportation and storage of chemicals
  • Ineffective against cysts (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
  • Loses its activity during long-term storage
  • Potential danger of gaseous chlorine emission dung storage
  • Forms trihalomethane. When on-site generated, requires either immediate use or, in case of storage, special measures to purify the initial water from heavy metals ions. When on-site generated, NaCIO solution with the active chlorine concentration less than 450 mg/l does not form chlorates during storage
Chlorine dioxide On-site generation only. The most effective disinfectant and strongest oxidation agent among all chlorine-containing ones
  • Operates in low doses
  • Does not form chloramines
  • Does not facilitate trihalomethane formation
  • Destroys phenols – source of unpleasant taste and odour
  • Effective oxidant and disinfectant for all types of microorganisms, including cysts, (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) and viruses
  • Does not form bromides from bromates
  • Facilitates removal of iron and magnesium from water by means of their quick oxidation and precipitation of oxides
  • On-site generation only
  • Requires transportation and storage of chemicals
  • In reaction with organic impurities forms nonorganic byproducts
  • Forms chlorates and chlorite ions
Chloramine Formed during the reaction of ammonium with active chlorine. It is used as a disinfectant of a prolonged activity
  • Features stable and long-time aftereffect
  • Facilitates removal of foreign taste and odour
  • Reduces the level of trihalomethane and chlorine-organic acid generation
  • Prevents formation of biological slimes in distribution systems
  • Weak disinfectant and oxidation agent compared to chlorine
  • Not effective against viruses and cysts (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
  • Considerable dosages and prolonged contact time are required for disinfection
  • Dangerous for patients using dialysers, because it is capable of penetrating the dialyser membrane and effect erythrocytes
  • Forms nitrogen-containing byproducts

Alternative substances

Ozone Has been used for several decades in some of European countries for the purpose of disinfection, elimination of colour, for the taste and odour control
  • Strong disinfect and oxidation agent
  • Very effective against Giardia, Cryptosporidium and any other pathogenic microflora
  • Facilitates removal of turbidity from water
  • Removes foreign tastes and odours
  • Does not form chlorine containing trihalomethane
  • Forms byproducts, including: aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, bromine-containing trihalomethane, (bromoform inclusive), bromates (in presence of bromides): peroxides, brom-acetic acid
  • Necessitates the use of biologically active filters to remove byproducts
  • Does not ensure residual disinfection effect
  • Requires significant initial expenses for the equipment
  • Considerable expenses for operators` training and installation support
  • When reacting with organic compounds, ozone disintegrates them into smaller components, which could become a feeding media for microorganisms` growth in water distribution systems
Ultraviolet Exposure of water to UV rays capable of killing various types of microorganisms
  • Does not require storage and transportation of chemicals
  • Does not form byproducts
  • No residual effect
  • Not efficient against cysts (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
  • Requires considerable expenses for the equipment and technical maintenance
  • Requires considerable operational (power) expenses
  • Disinfection activity depends on the water turbidity, its hardness (sediments on the bulb surface), precipitation of organic impurities on the bulb surface, and deviations in the power supply, which effect the wavelength variation

Electrochemical activation

Anolyte Electrochemical activation of brine solution in a membrane electrolyser
  • Strong disinfectand and oxidation agent
  • Very effective against all kinds of bacteria and viruses
  • Highly effective as sporicidal agent
  • Effectively eliminates bad tastes and odours
  • Removes biofilms
  • Significantly less formation of chlorine compounds, halogens and TMT
  • No toxic by-products: chlorites (ClO2) and chlorates (ClO3)
  • No acute or chronic toxicity when diluted in water
  • Low cost
  • No transport or storage problem
  • Easy and safe storage and handling
  • Ventilation might be required in the installation room to remove fumes

Organic status of Anolyte


Organic status of anolyte as electrolysed water

EU

Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production
Abstract from EGTOP:
The substances listed in Annex VII(1) have been authorized for organic production in the EU. In the Group’s (Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production) opinion, there is a broad consensus that these substances (listed in Annex VII(1) are in line with the objectives and principles of organic production.

Conclusions
In the Group’s opinion, the use of electrolysed water is similar to the use of sodium hypochlorite. It may therefore be used for all purposes for which sodium hypochlorite is authorized, but not for any other purposes. For the time being the Group sees no need to mention electrolysed water explicitly.

USA

Policy Memorandum – NOP-PM15-4 Electrolyzed Water
This memorandum updates the status of electrolyzed water under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic regulations at 7 CFR Part 205. The memorandum clarifies that electrolysed water is a type of chlorine material that is allowed in organic production and handling

Chlorine materials are included on the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (National List). In water, chlorine materials such as calcium and sodium hypochlorite form an equilibrium of related chlorine species, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite (ClO-). Similar chlorine species are formed in the generation of electrolysed water. Accordingly, the NOP considers hypochlorous acid generated by electrolysed water to be an allowable type of chlorine material.

Canada

Electrolysed water

Electrolysed water (which may contain hypochlorous acid as a by-product of either electrolysis, or from the dissolution of chlorine compounds in water), is permitted.

New zealand

Biogro Certificate Number: RN 2016-1: Approved for use in organic production or food processing and handling under COR standards